I only see the identifier attribute in the Product Edit Form, why?
To be created a product only needs one attribute: the SKU or identifier attribute, it is the unique mandatory attribute. When you open the product edit form, you should see at least this identifier attribute.
If you are seing this unique attribute, firstly check if this product belongs to a family. Attributes are added at the family level. A product inherits from attributes when it is linked to the family, if the product is without family, it will not have any attributes except those added at the product level.
To add a product to a family, click on the small pencil icon nearby the family field (under the product name), select your family and click on save. Attributes will be automatically added to the products.
Note that in the Enterprise Edition, you can define specific rights on attribute groups: who can view, edit and/or own the attributes from a specific attribute group. So if you do not see any attributes, it is probably because you do not have the right to see them, in this case, please contact your administrator so he/she can grant you access to the attribute groups.